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K U M R A A

Cryogenic Gases

What are Cryogenic Gases?


A cryogenic liquid is a liquefied gas with a boiling point temperature that is typically below [-150 oC]. Examples of gases that can exist as a cryogenic liquid include Nitrogen, Oxygen, Argon, Helium, Neon, Krypton, and Xenon. Liquid Carbon Dioxide is also referred as a Cryogenic Liquid, although it has a higher boiling point.



Production Process


Cryogenic Liquid Nitrogen, Oxygen, and Argon are produced from the fractional distillation of air using air separation plants and techniques. These products are called LIN, LOX, and LAR, respectively.

Product
Purity
Liquid Nitrogen(LIN) > 99.999 %
Liquid Oxygen(LOX) > 99.98 %
Liquid Argon(LAR) > 99.999 %


Air Separation Process


The raw material for cryogenic Nitrogen, Oxygen and Argon is air. The concentration of breathable air contains, by volume, approximately 78% Nitrogen, 20.9% Oxygen, 0.9% Argon, 0.03% Carbon Dioxide and the rest being moisture and rare gases. Air is withdrawn from the atmosphere through a dust filter by a multi-stage heavy duty air compressor unit. As air is compressed from stage to stage, the heat of compression is removed by heat exchangers using cooling water as the cooling medium.

The compressed air is further cooled using a refrigeration circuit to aid in removing moisture and carbon dioxide from the air. Moisture and carbon dioxide can cause blockages when the air is super-cooled as it will freeze and form dry-ice or ice blocks in the piping and distillation column. The air first pass through a moisture stripping unit that removes the bulk of moisture using metal-adsorption-desorption techniques before it passes through the Pre-Purification Unit (PPU), which removes the remaining moisture and carbon dioxide.

The compressed air that is chilled, moisture-free, and carbon-di-oxide free, enters a super-heat exchanger, which converts the air into cryogenic liquid air before it enters the distillation column. In the distillation column, the liquid air begins to separate into its Individual components based on the thermodynamic properties of Nitrogen, Oxygen, and Argon. The purity of the products leaving the distillation process is attained by continuous online analysis and reflux adjustments to ensure the highest purity is attained in the respective products. Liquid Oxygen (LOX) is directly obtained from the distillation column while high-purity Liquid Nitrogen and Liquid Argon are obtained through additional purification, expansion, and refrigeration of the respective gases leaving the column. The compressed air that is chilled, moisture-free, and carbon-di-oxide free, enters a super-heat exchanger which converts the air into cryogenic liquid air before it enters the distillation column. In the distillation column, the liquid air begins to separate into its Individual components based on the thermodynamic properties of Nitrogen, Oxygen, and Argon. The purity of the products leaving the distillation process is attained by continuous online analysis and reflux adjustments to ensure the highest purity is attained in the respective products. Liquid Oxygen (LOX) is directly obtained from the distillation column while high-purity Liquid Nitrogen and Liquid Argon are obtained through additional purification, expansion, and refrigeration of the respective gases leaving the column.

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